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САНКТ – ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ

УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Британия


Учебные задания


Санкт - Петербург

Утверждено на заседании кафедры иностранных языков для математических факультетов.


Составитель: асс. И.А. Бадеева
Рецензенты: ст. преп. Д.Х. Ибрагимова,

cт. преп. Н.П. Васильева


Учебные задания способствуют расширению познаний студентов о Соединенном Королевстве Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, национальных символах и политическом строе страны. Пособие снабжено упражнениями на отработку навыков произношения, освоение основных лексических единиц, связанных с данной темой, а также на развитие коммуникативных навыков учащихся. Издание предназначено для студентов математических факультетов университета.

Britain Overview. National Symbols.





«I have seen much to hate here, much to forgive. But in a world where England is finished and dead, I do not wish to live».

Alice Duer Miller. White Cliffs*.



The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK for short). It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, their capital cities being London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. The UK is situated on the British Isles and is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The largest of the British Isles is Great Britain which contains England, Wales and Scotland. The second largest island of the British Isles is called Ireland. Northern Ireland (which is a part of Britain) occupies the north-eastern part of the island. Its capital city is Belfast. The larger part of Ireland is the Irish Republic, an independent state with its capital in Dublin.

The national flag of the United Kingdom is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of three crosses: the cross of St. George (the patron saint of England), the cross of St. Andrew(the patron saint of Scotland) and St. Patrick’s cross representing Northern Ireland. The Union Jack was set up in 1801, and the combination of colours and crosses of the flag reflects the peculiarities of the existing at that time national flags of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

Each part of the United Kingdom has its own national symbol: a red rose became the emblem of England after the Wars of the Roses (1455-1485). The thistle is the national emblem of Scotland. According to the old legend it saved the country from the enemy. The leek or daffodil is Welshmen’s national emblem. The Irish people celebrate St. Patrick’s Day by wearing the shamrock, their national emblem.

The total population of the UK is over 57 million people. London is the largest city with population of more than 7 million people. As to the other cities, one can name such important industrial and cultural centres as Manchester, Liverpool, Glasgow, Birmingham and Leeds.

For many centuries a large number of countries all over the world were included into the British Empire and were ruled by Britain. Nowadays most of these countries are independent states. In 1949 Britain and many former members of the British Empire founded an association, called the Commonwealth. It includes such countries as the Irish Republic, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The Queen of Great Britain is the official head of the Commonwealth and the countries which constitute it. The Union Jack is incorporated into the national flags of many countries of the Commonwealth.

* Alice Duer Miller (1874 – 1942) – an American journalist and writer. " White Cliffs " (1940), her best known short story, owes its name to the famous White Cliffs, a dramatically picturesque tourist attraction near Dover.





the United Kingdom

[jH'naItId'kINdqm]

Соединенное Королевство

Northern Ireland

['nLD(q)n'aIqlqnd]

Северная Ирландия

the British Isles

['brItIS'aIlz]

Британские острова

the English Channel

['InglIS'Cxnl]

принятое в Великобритании название пролива Ла-Манш

the Strait of Dover

['streItqv'dquvq]

Дуврский пролив (принятое в Британии название пролива Па-де-Кале)

Wales

[weIlz]

Уэльс

Scotland

['skOtlqnd]

Шотландия

London

['lAndqn]


г. Лондон

Cardiff

['kRdIf]

г. Кардиф

Edinburgh

['edInb(q)rq]

г. Эдинбург

Belfast

['belfRst]

г. Белфаст

Dublin

['dAblIn]

г. Дублин

patron saint

['peItr(q)n 'seInt]

святой покровитель

St. George

[snt 'dZLdZ]

Святой Георг (покровитель Англии)

St. Andrew

[snt 'xndrH]

Святой Эндрю (покровитель Шотландии)

St. Patrick

[snt 'pxtrIk]

Святой Патрик (покровитель Ирландии)

thistle

['Tisl]

чертополох (эмблема Шотландии)

leek

[lJk]

лук-порей (эмблема Уэльса)

daffodil

['dxfqdIl]

нарцисс (эмблема Уэльса)

shamrock

['SxmrOk]

трилистник (эмблема Ирландии)

Manchester

['mxn(t)SIstq]

г. Манчестер

Liverpool

['lIvqpHl]

г. Ливерпуль

Glasgow

['glRsgqu]

г. Глазго

Birmingham

['bWmINqm]

г. Бирмингем

Leeds

[lJdz]

г. Лидс

the Commonwealth

['kOmqnwelT]

Содружество наций


Exercises
Ex. 1 Match the name of a country from the left column with the name of its capital from the right column:


  1. England

  2. Wales

  3. Northern Ireland

  4. Scotland

  5. the Republic of Ireland

  1. Edinburgh

  2. London

  3. Dublin

  4. Cardiff

  5. Belfast


Ex. 2 Choose the correct word or phrase to complete these sentences:


1) The full and official name of the country is ________.

A. England

B. Great Britain

C. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

D. The UK

2) The UK consists of ________ parts.



A. three

B. five

C. four

D. two

3) The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack, is made up of ________ crosses.



A. two

B. three

C. four

D. five

4) ________ is the national emblem of Scotland.



A. The leek

B. The daffodil

C. The shamrock

D. The thistle

5) Welshmen all over the world celebrate their national holiday, St. David’s Day, by wearing either ________.



A. red roses or white roses

B. violets or daffodils

C. roses or daffodils

D. leeks or daffodils

6) What a red rose is to the English, a little ________ is to the Irish.



A. apple

B. shamrock

C. daffodil

D. thistle

:

.

Ex. 3 Answer the following questions:

1. What is the official name of the country?

2. Where is the UK situated?

3. What separates the country from the continental Europe?

4. What parts does the country consist of?

5. What is the capital of each part?

6. What is the name of the UK’s national flag?

7. How many crosses is the flag made up of?

8. What colours is the Russian flag composed of? Do you know what they symbolize?

9. Is there a patron saint of your home city?

10. What can you say about the national emblems of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland?

11. What is the population of London?

12. What other large cities can you name?

13. When was the Commonwealth founded?

14. What countries belong to the Commonwealth?

15. Who is the official head of the countries included into the Commonwealth?

Ex. 4 Which of the following statements are not true? Correct the false statements.


  1. The Republic of Ireland is a part of the UK.

  2. Edinburgh is the capital of an independent state.

  3. Wales is not represented on the Union Jack.

  4. Great Britain is a full and official name of the country.

  5. An Irishman might not agree that he is a British citizen.

  6. The Commonwealth is an association of former members of the British Empire and Britain.


Ex. 5 Render the text in English using the words and expressions below the text.
Государственный флаг Британии.
Говоря о государственных символах страны, мы, прежде всего, имеем в виду государственный флаг. Флаг — это визитная карточка страны, олицетворяющая ее суверенитет. Не каждый человек может описать по памяти флаги всех стран мира, но даже ребенок знает, что «звезды и полосы» принадлежат США, «кленовый лист» — Канаде, а «Юнион Джек», сложное сплетение красных и белых крестов на синем фоне, представляет Соединенное Королевство.

Государственный флаг Великобритании не просто символизирует страну, он отражает ее историю. Первый английский флаг был флагом Святого Георга, покровителя Англии (Уэльс к тому времени уже был покорен Англией). После заключения союза Англии и Шотландии к флагу добавили шотландский символ — крест святого Андрея. Тогда же появилось название «Юнион Джек», в котором закрепилась память о том, кто явился автором союза Англии и Шотландии, ведь две страны объединил Яков (Джеймс) I Стюарт, сын казненной шотландской королевы Марии Стюарт. В 1801 году после провозглашения союза Англии и Ирландии на британском флаге появился крест святого Патрика — покровителя Ирландии. С тех пор флаг Соединенного Королевства не менялся. Его можно увидеть и на флагах других государств — стран Содружества Наций, таких как Австралия, Новая Зеландия, Фиджи, Гавайские острова.





from memory




по памяти

“Stars and Stripes”




флаг США

maple-leaf




кленовый лист

interlacement




сплетение

against a background




на фоне

to conquer

['kONkq]

покорить, завоевать

to conclude an alliance with

[q'laIqns]

заключить союз с …

in commemoration of




в память о …

to execute

['eksIkjHt]

казнить

to declare




провозглашать, объявлять

Fiji Islands

[fJ'dZJ]

острова Фиджи

Hawaii

[hR'waIJ]

Гавайи











Monarchy
Britain is a state of the constitutional monarchy. That means that a monarch (a queen or a king) is at the head of the state, but the power of the monarch is not absolute, it is greatly limited by parliament. The continuity of the British monarchy has been interrupted only once (the republic of 1649-60) in over a thousand years.

According to the law the monarch is the head of the executive power, an integral part of the legislature, the head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Crown and the supreme governor of Church of England. But the real power of the monarchy has been steadily reduced over the years, and today the monarch acts only on advice of the ministers of the government. That is why it is often said that the Sovereign reigns but doesn’t rule.



Nevertheless, the institution of monarchy plays a very important role in Britain and the Commonwealth. It is a symbol of the national unity. All the members of the royal family take part in traditional ceremonies, visit different parts of Britain and many other countries and are closely involved in the work of various charities.

Vocabulary



constitutional

["kOnstI'tjHSqnl]

конституционный

monarchy

['mOnqkI]

монархия

parliament

['pRlqmqnt]

парламент

executive

[Ig'zekjutIv]

исполнительный

legislature

['ledZIsleICq]

законодательная власть

judiciary

[dZu(:)'dISIqn]

судебная власть

commander-in-chief

[kq'mRnd(q)rIn'CJf]

главнокомандующий

supreme

[sju(:)'prJm]

верховный, высший

government

['gAvnmqnt]

правительство

to reign

[reIn]

царствовать

charities

['CxrItIz]

благотворительные учреждения, общества

Church of England




англиканская церковь



















Government. Executive Power
The supreme executive power in Britain belongs to the Sovereign and the Government. Every five years a general election is held and the party which wins most seats in it forms the Government. By tradition, the leader of the majority party is appointed Prime Minister, the head of

the government. The Prime Minister usually takes policy decisions with the agreement of his Cabinet (a committee of leading ministers). The Cabinet Ministers introduce legislation, control finances, arrange the time-table of the Houses of Parliament, conduct foreign affairs, exercise supervision over every department of administration.

The Cabinet meets in private at number 10, Downing Street, the official residence of the British Prime Minister, and these proceedings are strictly confidential.

The Cabinet is constitutionally responsible to Parliament and can be forced to resign. No bill which a minister may prepare can become law until it is passed by an Act of Parliament.


Opposition
The party with the second largest number of members in the Parliament, or sometimes a combination of other parties, forms the official Opposition, and the Leader of the Opposition has a recognized post in the Houses of Parliament and receives a salary out of the state funds. He forms the so-called Shadow Cabinet, an alternative government. The aim of the Opposition and its Shadow Cabinet is to criticize government policies and to present an alternative programme.
Vocabulary


Sovereign

['sOvrIn]

монарх

general election

[I'lekS(q)n]

всеобщие выборы

majority

[mq'dZOrItI]

большинство

to appoint

[q'pOInt]

назначать

Prime Minister

['praIm 'mInIstq]

премьер-министр

finances

['faI'nxnsIz]

финансы

to conduct

['kOndAkt]

вести

to exercise

['eksqsaIz]

осуществлять

to resign

[rI'zaIn]

уходить в отставку


British Parliament. Legislative Power

Like the Monarchy, the Parliament in Britain is an ancient institution dating from the beginning of the 13th century.

The British Parliament is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom. It consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

The Houses work in different chambers, in the opposite parts of the Westminster Palace, but the chambers are shaped in the same way which is very important. The arrangement of seats (or benches) in both Houses is of great significance. It reflects and maintains the two-party system of Britain.

Both Houses are rectangular (not semicircular as most European Chambers) in shape, with rows of benches on either side. To the right of the Speaker of the Chamber there are benches for the Government and its supporters, to the left – for the Opposition. There are facing the Speaker cross benches for Independent members, for those who do not belong to either of the two leading parties.

The proceedings in both Houses are public, and visitors are admitted into the “strangers’ gallery”. Since 1803 the proceedings of the Parliament have been published the following day as “Hansard”, the Official Report of the parliamentary life.




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